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These constraints are generally expressed using some combination of grammatical rules governing the order of elements, Boolean predicates that the content must satisfy, data types governing the content of elements and attributes, and more specialized rules such as uniqueness and referential integrity constraints.
There are languages developed specifically to express XML schemas.
DTD-validating parsers are most common, but some support XML Schema or RELAX NG as well.
Abstract Schematron [Schematron] is a structural based validation language, defined by Rick Jelliffe, as an alternative to existing grammar based approaches.
The RELAX NG specifications have been developed within OASIS by the RELAX NG Technical Committeee.
Definitive specification for RELAX NG using the XML syntax.
An XML schema is a description of a type of XML document, typically expressed in terms of constraints on the structure and content of documents of that type, above and beyond the basic syntactical constraints imposed by XML itself.
RELAX NG is also an International Standard (ISO/IEC 19757-2).
It is Part 2 of ISO/IEC 19757 DSDL (Document Schema Definition Languages), which is maintained by ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34/WG1.
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